Pollinators and other Wildlife
Bees, butterflies and hummingbirds all pollinate certain flowering plants which depend on those animal species in order to reproduce. Other wildlife, wind and even water can pollinate. More details about species below.
These are perilous times for pollinators. You can help by planting pesticide-free areas of useful flowering trees, shrubs or flowers. Even potted plants or parking strips can offer hospitality and refuge.
Support local food production that embraces organic principles. Whether you are supporting thriving pollinators, your own health or improving local economy, it is a win-win effort, thank you!
Original art by E. Winston
Pollinator Garden design at US Fish & Wildlife refuge office
Oregon State University Extension and
citizen scientists are recording bee species indigenous to local regions.
By creating a garden such as this one at the local wildlife refuge, we are creating a "hub" where we can find a diverse sampling of bee species.
Diversity of plant species is key to attract a variety of bees and pollinators.
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Bees can be divided into two groups by their lifestyles: solitary or social. Despite the fact that the stereotypical image is of a bee living in a hive, only a few species of bees are social. Social bees share a nest, and divide the work of building the nest, caring for the offspring, and foraging for pollen and nectar. The principal social bees are the honey bee (not native to the U.S.) and the bumble bees (about forty-five species in the U.S.).
There is an astonishing diversity of native bees across the USA. About 4,000 species have been identified, ranging in length from less than one eighth of an inch to more than one inch. They vary in color from dark brown or black to metallic green or blue, and may have stripes of red, white, orange, or yellow. Names often reflect the way they build nests: plasterer bees, leafcutter bees, mason bees, wool carder bees, digger bees, and carpenter bees.
Native Bee Biology
25 plants for
attracting native bees to your garden
English gardeners love bumblebees and bee culture is highly valued.
Long-term study links neonicotinoids
to wild bee declines
By Kate Kelland | LONDON
Wild bees that forage from oilseed rape crops treated with insecticides known as neonicotinoids are more likely to undergo long-term population declines than bees that forage from other sources, according to the findings of an 18-year study.
The new research covered 62 species of bee found in the wild in Britain and found a link between their shrinking populations and the use of neonicotinoid pesticides.
Neonicotinoids are used worldwide in a range of crops and have been shown in lab-based studies to be harmful to certain species of bee - notably commercial honeybees and bumblebees.
For more about helping bumblebees click link below
Tips for attracting butterflies to your garden
Plant native flowering plants - butterflies get the best nectar or foliage they need as adults and caterpillars from native plants. They co-evolved with these plants.
Plant type and color is important - Butterflies are attracted to red, orange, yellow, pink and purple blossoms.
Plant in the sun - Your butterfly nectar plants need full sun about 6 hours a day.
Continuous bloom - Butterflies need nectar throughout the adult phase of their life span.
Say no to insecticides - Insecticides such as malathion, Sevin, and diazinon kill insects. Even organic treatments such as Bacillus thuringiensisare lethal to caterpillars.
Feed butterfly caterpillars - or there will be no adults. Most butterfly caterpillars never cause the leaf damage we associate with some moth caterpillars.
Places for butterflies to rest - Butterflies use the sun for orientation and bask to warm their wings. Flat stones or conifer trees.
Water source known for puddling - wet sand and mud allow butterflies a place to drink and extract minerals from damp puddles
For more information about creating butterfly landscapes and gardens, click on the link below
Original artwork by Vicki Affatati
No Nectar Found
on Fancy Flowers
Petunia, single bloom
Petunia, double-bloom shown above, makes it impossible for butterfly to find the nectar.
The Butterflies and Moths
Original art by Vicki Affatati
Anna's hummingbirds are found throughout Oregon and are often year around residents if food is provided. It is the largest of the hummingbirds. Their breeding ground is in the interior of south western Oregon and northwestern California.
Photo credit: Audubon field guide- Nancy Canty
The Rufous hummingbird winters in Mexico and travels to its breeding grounds in Northern California, Oregon, Canada and Alaska. It is the most common hummer found in western Oregon and maybe the most territorial with fearless behavior around feeders. Found in Oregon from February until September. These migrants need lots of food in August prior to their departure south.
The Allen's hummingbirds breed all along the west coast. They breed along the western California coast and as far north as Bandon on the southern Oregon coast but spend their winters in central Mexico. This species is closely related to the Rufous but are not as far ranging. arrival to Oregon is between March and April.
Songbirds well fed by native plants
Ground dwelling birds: Towhees, sparrows and buntings - eat
insects in summer and seeds in winter
Finches. sparrows, grossbeaks and pine siskins are common
Planting for birds requires plants that go to fruit or berries after
blossoming and flowers that mature into seed heads. Also host plants for butterflies provide thousands of caterpillars for songbirds to feed to their young.
From Nest Watch, The Cornell Lab of Ornithology: "A single pair of breeding chickadees must find 6,000 to 9,000 caterpillars to rear one clutch of young, according to Doug Tallamy, a professor of entomology and wildlife ecology at the University of Delaware. Even though seeds are a nutritious winter staple, insects are best for feeding growing fledglings. Surprisingly, insects contain more protein than beef, and 96% of North American land birds feed their young with them. . . "